In just below 30 hours, China launched two rockets with six satellites to their respective orbits. The primary launch was a Chang Zheng 4C (CZ-4C) with the Yaogan 34-03 (Yaogan-34C) authorities distant sensing satellite tv for pc on Nov. 15 at 01:38 UTC from Jiuquan Satellite tv for pc Launch Heart (JSLC) at Website 43/94.
It was adopted by the Ceres-1 with 5 Jilin-1 Gaefen-03D distant sensing satellites from JSLC at Website 95 on Nov. 16 at 06:20 UTC, dubbed the “Younger For You” mission. These two launches by CZ-4C and Ceres-1 mark the forty sixth and fourth launches by every respective launch automobile since their introductions.
CZ-4C Launches Yaogan-34-03
CZ-4C is a three-stage liquid-fueled launch automobile owned and operated by China Aerospace Science and Expertise Company (CASC). The rocket is part of the older technology of CZ rockets utilizing N2O2 and UDMH hypergolic propellants. Because the rocket has no aspect boosters, CZ-4C is a smaller rocket able to lifting 4,200 kg to low Earth orbit (LEO) or 2,800 kg to Solar-synchronous orbit (SSO).
CZ-4C was launched in 2006 on the Yaogan 1 mission. Since then, CZ-4C has flown 46 instances with two failures. With the latest introductions of the CZ-6 and CZ-8, the CZ-4 rockets are starting to be phased out by the brand new rockets.
The primary stage is essentially the most vital a part of the rocket, with a size of 27.91 meters with a diameter of three.35 meters. Like many earlier technology CZ-rockets, it’s powered by a single YF-21C engine, utilizing N202 and UDMH propellants. The YF-21C engine is comprised of 4 YF-20C engines. At liftoff, the YF-21C engine cluster generates ~2,950 kN of thrust with a particular impulse of ~260 seconds. YF-21’s roots date again to the Nineteen Seventies, with the YF-20 engine used on China’s first orbital class rocket and ICBMs. Lots of its variants are nonetheless operational on China’s older automobiles.
CZ-4C’s second stage is powered by a single YF-22C, a variant of the YF-20, together with 4 vernier engines. Its 4 vernier engines steer the automobile, whereas the principle YF-22C engine generates ~740 kN of thrust to position itself into its preliminary orbit. The stage retains the identical 3.35-meter diameter however is shorter at 10.9 meters.
On prime of the second stage is the third and closing stage for CZ-4C. The third stage is the smallest of the three, with a smaller diameter of two.9 meters with a size of 14.79 meters. A single YF-40 engine with a thrust of 100 kN and a particular impulse of 412 seconds locations the rocket and payload into its desired orbit.
The ultimate main a part of the rocket is the payload fairing. On prime of the third stage, the fairing protects the payload(s) from the aerodynamic forces through the ascent. The fairing separates as soon as the rocket is out of the environment to shed additional mass, exposing the payload(s) to area.
For this mission, contained in the payload fairing was the Yaogan-34C distant sensing satellite tv for pc. Yaogan-34C is part of the Yaogan household, a sequence of Chinese language authorities Earth-observation satellites used for surveillance. The satellite tv for pc household permits China to survey land and crops, disasters, and environmental monitoring. As a authorities satellite tv for pc, Yaogan-34C has no particulars about itself launched to the general public, doubtless for use to meet army providers.
The CZ-4C launched on Nov. 15 at 01:38 UTC. Yaogan-34C joins its different satellites, 34A and 34B, in a virtually 1,100 km LEO at an inclination of 63.4 levels.
Ceres-1 Launches Jilin-1
Ceres-1 is a four-stage launch automobile owned and operated by Galactic Power. The rocket’s first three phases use strong gas, with the fourth utilizing hydrazine. All 4 phases can carry 700 kg to LEO or ~270 kg to SSO, making the automobile a small-satellite launcher. Since its introduction in November 2020, Ceres-1 has accomplished 4 missions with a 100% success document. The rocket will get its identify from the dwarf planet Ceres, situated within the Asteroid belt.
Ceres-1’s first stage is the most important and the primary solid-propellant stage. Named Lightyear GS-1, the stage generates 534 kN of thrust with a burn time of 74 seconds. Galactic Power manufactures GS-1 for Ceres-1. The second stage is GS-2 and generates 249 kN with a burn time of 70 seconds. On prime of the second stage is the ultimate strong motor, GS-3, which fires for 69 seconds with a thrust of 133 seconds.
The fourth and closing stage for the Ceres-1 rocket is the liquid-fuel hydrazine higher stage. This stage permits the payload(s) to be positioned into its meant orbit. A composite payload fairing 1.28 meters in diameter and a pair of.6 meters in peak sits on prime of the rocket. With the entire stack, the rocket stands 19 meters tall with a diameter of 1.4 meters.
This mission was the primary time Ceres-1 launched utilizing a Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL). A TEL permits a launcher to be raised vertically and launch proper on the TEL.
Jilin-1 is a sequence of Earth statement satellites operated by Chang Guang Satellites Applied sciences Company. Since its first launch in 2015, Jilin has launched on a number of rockets, together with CZ-6, Hyperbola-1, CZ-2D, CZ-11, CZ-8, Kuaizhou 1A, and extra.
On this mission was a set of 5 Jilin-1 Gaofen (Excessive Decision)-03D satellites. Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D is a 42 kg satellite tv for pc set to get a slender field-of-view picture of the Earth’s floor. These satellites use new cameras, buildings, and digital methods to maintain prices and weight low. The Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D may have imagery of 0.75 meters.
Jilin-1 plans to launch 138 satellites by 2030 to allow round the clock, all-weather, and full-spectrum information acquisition offering geospatial data and providers of excessive temporal and spatial decision.
Ceres-1 is simply the primary rocket for Galactic Power. As early as subsequent yr, Galactic Power will launch the liquid-fueled, partly reusable Pallas-1 rocket. Palla-1 may have a recoverable first stage to carry 5,000 kg to LEO or 3,000 kg to SSO.
(Lead picture: CZ-4C lifts off from Jiuquan.)
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